Anticancer Potential of Ethanolic Extract Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves against Human Colon Cancer WiDr Cell Line

Novita Mutiyani, Ardaning Nuriliani


Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a plant contains various compounds that has potential as anticancer drugs. Secondary metabolites of jackfruit leaves are flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids, and saponins. A typical flavonoid compound group in the Artocarpus genus, namely artocarpin, is able to kill cancer cells through apoptosis. Not many have conducted cytotoxicity research and apoptosis induction of ethanolic extracts from jackfruit leaves, especially against WiDr colon cancer cells. Therefore, this study aims to study the cytotoxic effects and apoptosis induction of ethanolic extracts of jackfruit leaves against WiDr colon cancer cells. The research was conducted by cytotoxicity test using the MTT assay. Apoptosis test was done using double staining method with AO/PI dye. The treatment was conducted at various concentrations of ethanolic extract of jackfruit leaves, doxorubicin as positive control, and DMSO as solvent control. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) and continued using Tukey HSD Post Hoc test. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of jackfruit leaves was not toxic to WiDr cells with an IC50 740.43 μg/mL, but could significantly reduce cell viability at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The ethanolic extract of jackfruit leaves could also induce apoptotic cell death at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. Based on these results, ethanolic extract of jackfruit leaves has little potential to be developed as an anticancer drug.


Apoptosis; cytotoxic; Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaves; ethanol extract; WiDr cells

Full Text:



Arung, E. T., Wicaksono, B. D., Handoko, Y. A., Kusuma, I. W., Shimizu, K., Yulia, D., & Sandra, F. (2010). Cytotoxic effect of artocarpin on T47D cells. J Nat Med, 64, 423–429.

Abubakar, A. R. & Haque, M. (2020). Preparation of medicinal plants: Basic extraction and fractionation procedures for experimental purposes. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, 12(1), 1–10.

American Cancer Society. (2020). Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2020-2022. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, pp. 1-2.

Buranaamnuay, K. (2021). The MTT Assay application to measure the viability of spermatozoa: A variety of the assay protocols. Open Vet J, 11(2), 251-269.

CCRC. (2013). Protokol Uji Sitotoksik Metode MTT. Yogyakarta: Research Center Farmasi UGM, pp. 1-8.

Daud, N. N. N. N. M., Septama, A. W., Simbak, N., & Rahmi, E. P. (2020). The phytochemical and pharmacological properties of artocarpin from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 13(1), 1-7.

Fathani, I. & Miladiyah, I. (2021). Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of fruit shells and seeds of nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) on WiDr colorectal cancer cells. JKKI, 12(2), 166-174.

Ferlay, J., Ervik, M., Lam, F., Laversanne, M., Colombet, M., Mery, L., Piñeros, M., Znaor, A., Soerjomataram, I., & Bray, F. (2024). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from:

Gupta, A. K., Rather, M. A., Kumar, J. A., Shashank, A., Singhal, S., Sharma, M., Pathak, U., Sharma, D., & Mastinu, A. (2020). Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. And Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. flowers: new sources of bioactive compounds. Plants, 9(10), 1-16.

Kciuk, M., Gielecińska, A., Mujwar, S., Kołat, D., Kałuzińska-Kołat, Ż., Celik, I., & Kontek, R. (2023). Doxorubicin an agent with multiple mechanisms of anticancer activity. Cells, 12(4), 659.

Marka, V., Kamarapu, M., Vanisree, R., & Yalavarthy, P. D. (2016). Anticancer activity of crude extracts from leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus. The Ame J Sci & Med Res, 3(2), 12-17.

Morrison, I. J., Zhang, J., Lin, J., Murray, J.E., Porter, R., Langat, M.K., Sadgrove, N.J., Barker, J., Zhang, G., & Delgoda, R. (2021). Potential chemopreventive, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of a refined artocarpin-rich wood extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Sci Rep, 11(1), 1-10.

Mierza, V., Odhia, F. N., Tyasna, P. S., Nisa, D.Q., & Andriani, N. (2022). Literature review: Standardization of rutin compounds in several plant types. Jurnal EduHealth, 13(2), 1092–1098.

Ngbolua, K. N., Moke, E. L., Blaise, M. M., Bongo, G. N., Kapepula, P. M., Ngombe, N. K., Messi, M., Mbing, J. N., Pegnyemb, D. E., & Mpiana, P.T. (2019). Selenium content, anthelmintic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam. from Ubangi Ecoregion in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Am J Biomed Sci & Res, 6(2), 135-141.

Nilakandhi, T., Prajitno, A., Fadjar, M. Hidayati, D.A., & Pratama, G. (2023). Effect of giving jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) leaves crude extract as an alternative antibacterial of Edwardsiella tarda bacteria in vitro. Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, 12(1), 105-114.

Patel, R. M. & Patel, S. K. (2011). Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus against A549, Hela, and MCF-7 cell lines. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1(7), 167-171.

Rachmawati, E., Karyono, S., & Suyuti, H. (2012). Efek ekstrak etanolik daun sirsak pada proliferasi dan apoptosis sel hela yang dimediasi oleh p53. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 27(1), 28-33.

Shahruzaman, S. H., Mustafa, M. F., Ramli, S., Maniam, S., Fakurazi, S., & Maniam, S. (2019). The cytotoxic properties of Baeckea frutescens branches extracts in eliminating breast cancer cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019, 1-10.

Simanurak, O., Pekthong, D., Somran, J., Wangteeraprasert, A., Srikummool, M., Kaewpaeng, N., Parhira, S., & Srisawang, P. (2023). Enhanced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with extracts from Calotropis gigantea stem bark by starvation. Heliyon, 9(7), 1-16.

Wardhani, I. Y., Ramadani, A. H., Famelia, V., & Widyaningrum, F. (2023). The effect of extraction method on total flavonoid content of Ageratum conyzoides ethanol extract. Journal of Biology Education, 6(2): 136-148

Zhang, Q. W., Lin, L. G., & Ye, W. C. (2018). Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: A comprehensive review. Chinese Medicine, 13, 1-26.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Novita Mutiyani, Ardaning Nuriliani

Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry
ISSN 2089-6514 (paper) - ISSN 2540-9328 (online)
Published by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & Society for Indonesian Biodiversity.

This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC