Identification of Primary and Secondary Metabolites of Apis cerana Honey using FTIR-ATR Diamond Spectroscopy and Their Botanical Origin

Tiffany Hanik Lestari, Ratna Susandarini


Apis cerana Fab. is one of the popular honeybees species among beekeepers in Indonesia. This species is easy to care for and produces valuable honey products. Honey from A. cerana is abundantly available in traditional and modern markets in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to identify the primary and secondary metabolites in the honey produced by A. cerana using FTIR-ATR Diamond spectroscopy. Twelve samples of honey from three provinces in Java Island were used in this study. In general, all honey samples contained protein, carbohydrate, water, alcohol, cellulose, alkaloid, tannin, and flavonoid. Variation on primary and secondary metabolites in honey samples was strongly affected by the botanical origin, geographical origin, and the local condition around beekeeping areas where the honeycombs were placed.


Apis cerana; biochemical characterization; honey; spectroscopy analysis

Full Text:



Adeniyi KA, Daudu OAY, Abubakar A, Ismail AD, Busari MB, Abdulsalami H, Oyibo-Usman K.A (2014) Comparative analysis of the proximate and nutritional compositions of Nigerian bitter and sweet honey from Apis mellifera. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 4 (11): 1-4.

Anjos O, Campos MG, Ruiz PC, Antunes P (2015) Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to the quantification of sugar in honey. Food Chemistry 169: 218223.

Cimpoiu C, Hosu A, Miclaus V, Puscas A (2012) Determination of the floral origin of some Romanian honeys on the basis of physical and biochemical properties. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 100:149154.

Dassanayake RS, Acharya S, Abidi N (2018) Biopolymer-based materials from polysaccharides: properties, processing, characterization and sorption applications. In: Edibali S (Ed.). Advanced Sorption Process Applications. Advanced Sorption Process Applications. IntechOpen.

de Almeida-Muradian LB, Stramm KM, Estevinho LM (2014) Efficiency of the FT-IR ATR spectrometry for the prediction of the physicochemical characteristics of Melipona subnitida honey and study of the temperatures effect on those properties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 49: 188195. doi:10.1111/ijfs.12297

Devi A, Jangir J, Anu-Appaiah KA (2018) Chemical characterization complemented with chemometrics for the botanical origin identification of unifloral and multifloral honeys from India. Food Research International 107: 216226.

Formosa JA, Lia F, Mifsud D, Farrugia C (2020) Application of ATR-FT-MIR for tracing the geographical origin of honey produced in the Maltese Islands. Foods 9 (6): 710.

Joshi SR (2008) Honey in Nepal: Approach, Strategy and Intervention for Subsector Promotion. Deutsche Gesellschaft f?r Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, German Technical Cooperation/Private Sector Promotion-Rural Finance Nepal (GTZ/PSP-RUFIN).

Kasprzyk I, Depciuch J, Grabek-Lejko D, Parlinska-Wojtan M (2018) FTIR-ATR spectroscopy of pollen and honey as a tool for unifloral honey authentication. The case study of rape honey. Food Control 84: 33-40.

Kavanagh S, Gunnoo J, Passos, TM, Stout JC, White B (2019) Physicochemical properties and phenolic content of honey from different floral origins and from rural versus urban landscapes. Food Chemistry 272: 66-75.

Koetz A (2013) The Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) and its strains-With special focus on Apis cerana Java genotype: Literature review. Queensland: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Lestari TH. (2019) Analisis Kualitas Madu Apis cerana Fab. Berdasarkan Keragaman Polen dan Senyawa Kimia (Masters Thesis). Universitas Gadjah Mada. [Indonesian].

Li Y, Kong D, Wu H (2018) Comprehensive chemical analysis of the flower buds of five Lonicera Species by ATR-FTIR, HPLC-DAD, and chemometric methods. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 28: 533-541.

Majid M, Younis MA, Naveed AK, Shah MU, Azeem Z, Tirmizi SH (2013) Effects of natural honey on blood glucose and lipid profile in young healthy Pakistani males. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad 25 (3-4): 4447.

Malacarne M, Antoniolli G, Bertoldi D, Nardin T, Larcher R (2018) Botanical origin characterisation of tannins using infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry 267: 204209.

Mashwani Z, Khan MA, Khan T, Nadhman A (2016) Applications of plant terpenoids in the synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 234: 132141.

Monfreda M, Varani F, Cattaruzza F, Ciambrone S, Proposito A (2015) Fast profiling of cocaine seizures by FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis of minor alkaloids and residual solvents. Science and Justice 55: 456466. doi:10.1016/j.scijus.2015.06.002

Mnstedt K, Hoffmann S., Hauenschild A, Blte M, von Georgi R, Hackethal A (2009) Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values. Journal of Medicinal Food 12 (3): 624628.

Prica N, ivkov-Balo M., Jaki? S, Mihaljev , Kartalovi? B., Babi? J, Savi? S (2014) Moisture and acidity as indicators of the quality of honey originating from Vojvodina Region. Archives of Veterinary Medicine 7 (2): 99109.

Radloff S, Hepburn C, Hepburn H, Fuchs S, Hadisoesilo S, Tan K., Engel M, Kuznetsov, V (2010) Population structure and classification of Apis cerana. Apidologie 41: 589-601.

Riswahyuli Y, Rohman A, Setyabudi FMCS, Raharjo S (2020) Indonesian wild honey authenticity analysis using attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical techniques. Heliyon 6 (4): E03662.

Saksangawong C, Trevanich A, Wongwattanakul M, Chio-Srichan S, Sukone P (2021) Analysis of raw honey and syrup concentration in adulterated honey by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 16 (2): 127-134.

Se KW, Ghoshal SK, Wahab RA, Ibrahim RKR, Lani MN (2018) A simple approach for rapid detection and quantification of adulterants in stingless bees (Heterotrigona itama) honey. Food Research International 105: 453460. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.012

Silva LR, Videira R, Monteiro AP, Valento P, Andrade PB (2009) Honey from Luso region (Portugal): physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents. Microchemical Journal 93: 7377.

Singh BR, DeOliveira DB, Fu F, Fuller M (1993) Fourier transform infrared analysis of amide III bands of proteins for the secondary structure estimation. Proceedings of the Biomolecular Spectrocopy III. SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol 1890.

Tahir HE, Xiaobo Z, Zhihua L, Jiyong S, Zhai X, Wang S, Mariod AA (2017) Rapid prediction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Sudanese honey using Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Food Chemistry 226: 202-211.

Theisen-Jones H, Bienefeld K (2016) The Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is significantly in decline. Bee World 93 (4): 90-97.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Tiffany Hanik Lestari, Ratna Susandarini

Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry
ISSN 2089-6514 (paper) - ISSN 2540-9328 (online)
Published by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & Society for Indonesian Biodiversity.

This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC