Combined Anthocleista vogelii and Alstonia boonei Stem Barks Extract Alleviates Hyperlipidaemia and Renal Malfunctions in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-Induced Rats

Robert Ikechukwu Uroko, Mercylyn Ezinne Uche, Paul Chukwuemaka Nweje-Anyalowu, Ikenna Obiwuru, Chinedu Aguwamba, Chinomso Friday Aaron


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urological disease prevalent among the ageing male population, which impairs the quality of life, including hyperlipidaemia and a decline in renal functions. Combining Anthocleista vogelii and Alstonia boonei stem bark extract has effectively managed BPH and its associated complications. This study evaluated the effects of a combined Anthocleista vogelii and Alstonia boonei stem bark extract (CAASBE) on the lipid profile and renal functions of rats induced benign prostatic hyperplasia with testosterone propionate injection. The study comprised five treatment groups, with groups 1 5 being the normal control, BPH control, standard control, BPH+200 mg/kg CAASBE, and BPH+400 mg/kg CAASBE, respectively. BPH was induced in the groups 2 4 rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone propionate injection (5 mg/kg) for 28 days, and treatment with Finasteride and CAASBE were administered orally. The BPH control rats exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the total serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), urea, creatinine and significant (p < 0.05) decline in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to the normal control. Conversely, treatment of the BPH rats with 200 and 400 mg/kg of CAASBE significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the altered total serum cholesterol, TAG, LDL-C, HDL-C, urea and creatinine to normal levels comparable to that of the normal control and standard control respectively. These findings show that CAASBE alleviates hyperlipidaemia and renal malfunctions in the BPH rats suggesting it could be effective in managing BPH complication.


Alstonia boonei; Anthocleista vogelii; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Hyperlipidaemia; Renal functions

Full Text:



Abbiw D. Useful Plants of Ghana: West African Uses of Wild and Cultivated Plants. Kew, London: Intermediate Technology Publications, Royal Botanical Garden; 1990.

Adaramoye, O.A., Akintayo, O., Achem, J. & Fafunso, M.A. (2008). Lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 4(1): 235-241.

Akinmoladun, A.C., Ibukun, E.O., Afor, E., Akinrinlola., B.L., Onibon, T.R., Akinboboye, A.O., Obuotor, E.M., and Farombi, E.F. (2007). Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Alstonia boonei. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(10): 1197-1201

Chukwu, C., Uroko, R., Egba, S., Adamude, F. & Asadu, C. (2020). Effects of Combined Ethanol Extract of Anthocleista Vogelii and Alstonia Boonei Stem Barks on Liver Function Indices in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Induced Rats. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 6(2): 191-201.

Dahle, S.E., Chokkalingam, A.P., Gao, Y.T., Deng, J., Stanczyk, F.Z. & Hsing, A.W. (2002). Body size and serum levels of insulin and leptin in relation to the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of Urology, 168:599-604.

Eze, F.I., Siwe, N.X., Osadebe, P.O. & Krause, R. (2019). Phytochemical, anti-inflammatory and anti-trypanosomal properties of Anthocleista vogelii Planch (Loganiaceae) stem bark. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 238: 111851.

Gacci, M., Sebastianelli, S.M., De Nunzio., C., Vignozzi, L., Corona, G., Jaeger, T., Chini, T, Russo, G.I., Maggi, M., Morgia,, G., Tubaro, A., Carini, M. & Serni, S. (2017). Benign prostatic enlargement can be influenced by metabolic profile: results of a multicenter prospective study BMC Urology, 17:22.

Gven, E. & Gkhan, C. (2022). Association between hyperlipidaemia and prostatic enlargement: A case-control study. Urologia Journal, 89(1): 58-63

Ikpe, E.E., Archibong, U.D., Michael, C.U. & Ukpong, E.G. (2020) Chemical Composition of Anthocleista vogelii and Antioxidant Effect of Its Methanolic and Acetone Extracts. Chemical Science International Journal, 29(8): 7-18.

Kan, M., Jeong. C.W., Ku, J.H., Kwak, C. & Kim, H.H. (2015). Hypertriglyceridemia is a potential preoperative predictor for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. PLoS One, 10(3): e0122438.

Okon, O.E., Gboeloh, L.B. & Udoh, S.E. (2014). Antimalarial effect of combined extracts of the leaf of Ficus exasperata and stem bark of Anthocleista vogelii on mice experimentally infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (Nk 65). Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 8(3): 99-111.

Okpashi, V.E., Uroko, R.I., Ogana, J., Agbafor, A. & Nwuke, C.P. (2022). Effect of Alstonia boonei stem bark extracts on the activity of liver marker enzymes in rats induced by CCl4. Baghdad Science Journal [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jul. 26];. Available from:

Oppong-Bekoe, E., Dodoo, K.B., Kitcher, C. & Gordon, A. (2020). Frimpong-Manso S, Schwinger G. Pharmacognostic characteristics and mutagenic studies of Alstonia boonei De Wild. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy, 7(1): 7-15.

Reshma, K., Kuthethur, S., Manjerekar, P. & Gopal, M. (2014). Evaluation of biochemical markers of renal dysfunction in prostate disorders and healthy controls. International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research, 5(9): 415-417.

Rohrmann, S., Smit, E., Giovannucci, E. & Platz, E.A. (2005). Association between markers of the metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 29: 310-316.

Sunday, R.M., Ilesanmi, O.R. & Obuotor, E.M. (2016). Anti-diabetic effect of Anthocleista vogelii ethanolic root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10(1): 79-88.

Ugwu, M.N., Asuk, A.A. & Eteng, M.U. (2019). Assessment of lipid profile of testosterone and estradiol induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult male rats on administration of Vernonia amygdalina. IDOSR Journal of Scientific Research, 4(1): 61-70.

Uroko, R.I., Chukwu, C.N., Egba, S.I., Adamude, F.A. & Ajuzie, J.C. (2020). Combined ethanol extract of Funtumia africana and Abutilon mauritianium leaves improves the lipid profile and kidney function indices of benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria, 19(4): 395-404.

Uroko, R.I., Chukwu, C.N., Nweje-Anyalowu, P.C. & Aaron, C.F. (2021). Renal protective and lipid profile modulatory effects of ethanol Extract of Anthocleista vogelii stem bark (EASB) in renal injury rats induced with carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4). Traditional Medicine Journal, 26(3): 211-220.

Uroko, R.I., Okpashi, V.E., Bayim, B.P.R., Onwuekwe, A.U., Ucho, L.M. & Wallace, I. (2020). Dietary effect of Alstonia boonei stem bark extract on haematological profiles of Wistar albino rats after inducing oxidative stress with CCl4. African Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(4): 45-56.

Vignozzi, L., Rastrelli, G., Corona, G., Gacci, M., Forti, G. & Maggi, M. (2014). Benign prostatic hyperplasia: a new metabolic disease? Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 37(4):31322.

Weinstein, S.J., Mackrain, K., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.Z., Selhub, J., Virtamo, J. & Albanes, D. (2009). Serum creatinine and prostate cancer risk in a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 18(10): 2643-2649.

Yat-Ching, T. (2011). The role of cholesterol in prostatic diseases. Urological Science, 22(3): 97-102.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Robert Ikechukwu Uroko, Mercylyn Ezinne Uche, Paul Chukwuemaka Nweje-Anyalowu, Ikenna Obiwuru, Chinedu Aguwamba, Chinomso Friday Aaron

Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry
ISSN 2089-6514 (paper) - ISSN 2540-9328 (online)
Published by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & Society for Indonesian Biodiversity.

This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC