A Physical Chemistry Study of Black Powder Materials by Solution Combustion Synthesis Method

Fitria Hidayanti, Kiki R. Lestari, Nano Sujani, Jarot Raharjo

Abstract


A study on the synthesis of black powder (La2NiO4) material using the solution combustion synthesis method at a variation of synthesis temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C was carried out. It produces a mass of black powder of 2 grams by four times of synthesis process. Then, material characterization was performed on the black powder samples obtained by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the phases formed, Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to determine the morphology and analyze the composition elemental on the microscale and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) to determine chemical bonds. From the whole black powder sample, XRD analysis showed the phases of Dilantanum Nickel Tetraoxide (La2NiO4), Nickel Oxide (NiO), Lanthanum Oxide (La2O3), and Lanthanum Oxide Ht x-form (La2O3 Ht (x-form)). In addition, it was seen from the visible compositions of the phases that the NiO phase looks more dominant and the variation of the synthesis temperature shows that the La2O3 phase was increasing. This was supported by the EDS analysis, which showed that the EDS spectrum contains elements La, Ni, and O where the element O indicates that oxidation occurs in the elements Ni and La. On the other hand, the SEM analysis results confirm that the black powder sample contains the elements La and Ni, based on the high and low electron images contained in the morphology of the black powder sample. In addition, it was also known that the particles in the black powder sample were micron size and had porous morphology. This occurs due to rapid thermal decomposition events and excessive gas development. In addition, FTIR analysis showed that the O-H bond had been reduced and there are still C-O and C-H bonds indicating the presence of organic elements possessed by glycine.

Keywords


La2NiO4; Solution Combustion Synthesis; Battery NiMH; Hydrogen Storage Alloy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adziimaa A. F., Risanti D. D., and Mawarni J. (2013). Synthesis of Sodium Silicate from Lapindo Mud as Corrosion Inhibitor. J. Tek. ITS, 2(2), 384–389.

Ahamed, S. Z. A., Dillip, G. R., Raghavaiah, P., Mallikarjuna, K., & Raju, B. D. P. (2013). Spectroscopic and thermal studies of γ-glycine crystal grown from potassium bromide for optoelectronic applications. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 6(4), 429-433.

Aruna, S. T. (2017). Solution combustion synthesis. In Concise encyclopedia of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (pp. 344-346). Elsevier.

Azhagan, S. A. C., & Ganesan, S. (2013). Crystal growth, structural, optical, thermal and NLO studies of γ-glycine single crystals. Optik, 124(23), 6456-6460.

Chang, S., Young, K. H., Nei, J., & Fierro, C. (2016). Reviews on the US Patents regarding nickel/metal hydride batteries. Batteries, 2(2), 10.

Chang, S., Young, K. H., & Lien, Y. L. (2017). Reviews of European Patents on Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries. Batteries, 3(3), 25.

Deganello, F., & Tyagi, A. K. (2018). Solution combustion synthesis, energy and environment: Best parameters for better materials. Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, 64(2), 23-61.

Fathi, H., Masoudpanah, S. M., Alamolhoda, S., & Parnianfar, H. (2017). Effect of fuel type on the microstructure and magnetic properties of solution combusted Fe3O4 powders. Ceramics International, 43(10), 7448-7453.

González-Cortés, S. L., & Imbert, F. E. (2013). Fundamentals, properties and applications of solid catalysts prepared by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). Applied Catalysis A: General, 452, 117-131.

Haryadi, H. (2017). Analysis of Indonesia's Iron Sand and Nickel Ore Resources Balance. Journal Mineral Technology dan Batubara. 13 (2), 153–169.

Inatadon, N. F., Abdurrachman, M., and Aziz, M. (2015). Geology and Study of Rare Earth Metals Botor Peanut Area and Surrounding Areas, Badau District, Belitung Regency, Province of Bangka Belitung Islands. Proceeding, National Seminar on Earth Ke-8. 744–753.

Khina, B. B. (2010). Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Materials. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Kumari, A., Soni, A. K., Dey, R., and Rai, V. K. (2015). White Light Emission and Optical Heating in Er – Tm – Yb Codoped La2O3 Phosphor. J. Disp. Technol., 12(1), 99–105.

Latif, C., Triwikantoro, and Munasir. (2014). Effect of Calcination Temperature Variation on Silica Structure. J. Sains dan Seni ITS, 3(1). 4–7.

Li, M. M., Yang, C. C., Wang, C. C., Wen, Z., Zhu, Y. F., Zhao, M., ... & Jiang, Q. (2016). Design of hydrogen storage alloys/nanoporous metals hybrid electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries. Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-10.

Liu, W., & Aguey-Zinsou, K. F. (2016). Low temperature synthesis of LaNi5 nanoparticles for hydrogen storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(3), 1679-1687.

Manukyan, K. V. (2017). Solution combustion synthesis of catalysts. In Concise Encyclopedia of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (pp. 347-348). Elsevier.

Nedumkallel, A. S., Sabu, B., and Varghese, T. (2014). Effect of Calcination Temperature On The Structural and Optical Properties. Nanosyst. PHYSICS, Chem. Math., 5(3). 441–449.

Ouchi, T., Young, K. H., & Moghe, D. (2016). Reviews on the Japanese patent applications regarding nickel/metal hydride batteries. Batteries, 2(3), 21.

Patil, K. C., Aruna, S. T., & Ekambaram, S. (1997). Combustion synthesis. Current opinion in solid state and materials science, 2(2), 158-165.

Peter, M. E., & Ramasamy, P. (2010). Growth of gamma glycine crystal and its characterisation. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 75(5), 1417-1421.

Prasetiyo, P. (2008). Utilization of Indonesia's Nickel Ore Potential at Present and Future. Metallurgical Magazine, 23 (1).

Radev, L., Pavlova, L., Samuneva, B., Kashchieva, E., Mihailova, I., Zaharescu, M., ... & Predoana, L. (2008). Sol-gel synthesis and structure of La2O3-CoO-SiO2 powders. Processing and Application of Ceramics, 2(2), 103-108.

Rahdar, A., Aliahmad, M., and Azizi, Y. (2015). NiO Nanoparticles : Synthesis and Characterization,†J. Nanostructures, 5, 145–151.

Sankar, S., Manikandan, M. R., Ram, S. G., Mahalingam, T., & Ravi, G. (2010). Gel growth of α and γ glycine and their characterization. Journal of crystal growth, 312(19), 2729-2733.

Sarwanto, Y. and Adi, W.A. (2018). Crystallographic Structure and Magnetic Properties of Pseudobrookite Fe2-X NiX TiO5 System (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1). Indones. J. Mater. Sci., 19(2). 47–53.

Segawa, T., Kawaguchi, K., Ishii, K., Suzuki, M., Arimitsu, N., Yoshida, H., & Fukui, K. (2015). Nickel oxide powder synthesis from aqueous solution of nickel nitrate hexahydrate by a microwave denitration method. Advanced Powder Technology, 26(3), 983-990.

Setiadi, H. (2018). Analysis of Micro Structure and Mechanical Properties of NiCr-Al Coating Formed by Sputtering Method on Steel 40. Universitas Muhammadiah Surakarta.

Speakman, S. A. (2012). Profile Fitting for Analysis of XRPD Data using HighScore Plus v3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA.

Trivedi, M. K., Branton, A., Trivedi, D., Nayak, G., Bairwa, K., & Jana, S. (2015). Spectroscopic characterization of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate and sodium nitrate after biofield treatment. Chromatography Separation Techniques, 6(5).

Tutu, R., Subaer, and Usman. (2015). Analysis study of characterization and microstructure of sulili hot spring sediment in pinrang district. J. Sains dan Pendidik. Fis., 2, 192–201.

Virdhian, S. and Afrilinda, E. (2014). Characterization of Soil Minerals Rarely Follow-Up Tin and Potential Development of Soil-Based Industry Rare Earth. J. Met. Indonesia, 36 (2). 61.

Xanthopoulou, G., Thoda, O., Metaxa, E. D., Vekinis, G., & Chroneos, A. (2017). Influence of atomic structure on the nano-nickel-based catalyst activity produced by solution combustion synthesis in the hydrogenation of maleic acid. Journal of Catalysis, 348, 9-21.

Xanthopoulou, G., Thoda, O., Roslyakov, S., Steinman, A., Kovalev, D., Levashov, E., ... & Chroneos, A. (2018). Solution combustion synthesis of nano-catalysts with a hierarchical structure. Journal of catalysis, 364, 112-124.

Young, K. H., Cai, X., & Chang, S. (2017). Reviews on Chinese Patents regarding the nickel/metal hydride battery. Batteries, 3(3), 24.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/biomedich.2021.102.93-103

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Fitria Hidayanti, Kiki R. Lestari, Nano Sujani, Jarot Raharjo



Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry
ISSN 2089-6514 (paper) - ISSN 2540-9328 (online)
Published by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & Society for Indonesian Biodiversity.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC